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Composed of granite, gneiss, schist (crystalline rock), and quartzite, the region has an average elevation of about 1,000 feet (300 metres). In 2002, due to the government’s failure to meet criteria, the IMF suspended Guinea’s Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). More than 5,000 square miles (13,000 square km) of the highlands’ total extent of 30,000 square miles (78,000 square km) lie above 3,000 feet (900 metres). Sandy brown soils predominate in the northeast, while black, heavy clay soils accumulate in the backwaters along the coast. On 29 September 1898, he was captured by the French Commandant Goudraud and exiled to Gabon, marking the end of the Wassoulou Empire. Its soldiers have been accused of mutilation, rape, and murder in these attacks. World Africa The Forest Region contains several extensive patches of rainforest, with teak, mahogany, and ebony trees; agriculture, however, has diminished the forests and resulted in a shift largely toward open savanna. In addition to bauxite, Guinea also has large diamond, iron, and gold deposits. Upper Guinea is composed of the Niger Plains, which slope northeastward toward the Sahara. Guinea (/ ˈ ɡ ɪ n i / ()), officially the Republic of Guinea (French: République de Guinée), is a west-coastal country in West Africa.Formerly known as French Guinea (French: Guinée française), the modern country is sometimes referred to as Guinea-Conakry to distinguish it from other countries with "Guinea" in the name and the eponymous region, such as Guinea-Bissau and Equatorial Guinea. The Fouta Djallon also gives rise to numerous smaller rivers, including the Fatala, Konkouré, and Kolenté, which flow westward across the coastal plain to enter the Atlantic Ocean. He ruled by using violent repression until he died on March 26, 1984. Official language: French. The most common soils found in Guinea are laterites formed of iron and hydrated aluminum oxides and other materials that often concretize into hard iron-rich conglomerates. Fouta Djallon is a highland region in the center of Guinea. The climate of Guinea is tropical with two alternating seasons—a dry season (November through March) and a wet season (April through October). 80 percent of the people in Guinea are employed in agriculture. Basically an enormous sandstone block, the Fouta Djallon consists of level plateaus broken by deeply incised valleys and dotted with sills and dikes, or exposed structures of ancient volcanism resulting in resistant landforms of igneous rock. Large-scale gold and diamond mining also occurs. Hyperdynamics Corporation, an American oil company, also signed an agreement to develop offshore oil deposits. While they see economically prosperous countries in the media, their inability to find work is frustrating. The Guinean sector was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1981 and is home to a unique and diverse array of flora and fauna. The indigenous name in the Pular language i… Becoming An Investor In Nigeria: Where To Start? Unlike many global publications, for nearly a decade we have been committed to showing a complete picture of Africa – not just a single story. Other bauxite companies are the Compagnie des Bauxites de Kindia, Dian Dian, and Alumina Compagnie de Guinee. Mount Nimba, the highest peak of the Nimba Range, which extends along the Guinea–Côte d'Ivoire–Liberia border in western Africa. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Guinea is an African country located on the western region of Africa on the Atlantic coast. Conakry, on an island just off the coast, is the capital and the economic and administrative center. The primary activities are agricultural, and the per-capita average income is about $500. 85 percent of the people practice Islam, 10 percent are Christian, and 5 percent hold indigenous beliefs. 900 personnel are in the navy. While the government met spending goals in social sectors, military spending contributed to a fiscal deficit. Republica Guineea (în franceză: République de Guinée) este un stat situat în Africa de Vest.Are granițe cu Guineea-Bissau și Senegal la nord, Mali la nord și nord-est, Coasta de Fildeș la sud-est, Liberia la sud, și Sierra Leone la vest. Europe America Asia Africa Australia Oceania. The country continued reforms in 1996 and 1998 under IMF agreements. China won’t congratulate Biden, but backs disputed Guinea leader. Fulani people are mainly pastoralists making them the largest nomadic pastoralist community in the world. Guinea consists of four geographic regions: Lower Guinea, the Fouta Djallon, Upper Guinea, and the Forest Region, or Guinea Highlands. Ahmed Sekou Toure was the president when the country gained independence. New The arrival of the migratory intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in June brings the heaviest rainfall of the wet season. AREDOR is a diamond-mining venture partly owned by the Guinean government. Guinea's mineral wealth makes it potentially one of Africa's richest countries, but its people are among the poorest in West Africa. The flat relief is broken by rounded granite hills and outliers of the Fouta Djallon. If you are interested in telling stories in an impactful way to shine a spotlight on a particular issue, please email us. New Zealanders in Guinea are encouraged to register their details with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Uranium may also be present but its quantities are unknown. The Kakoulima Massif, for example, attains 3,273 feet (998 metres) northeast of Conakry. The Gambia River flows northwestward before crossing Senegal and The Gambia. The Fouta Djallon is the source of the three major rivers of the region. Unemployment in Guinea’s youth is a major problem. The Forest Region generally drains to the southwest through Sierra Leone and Liberia. When Camara went to Morocco for medical treatment, his vice-president, Sekouba Konate, returned from Lebanon to run the country. Crocodiles and several varieties of fish are found in most rivers. There are 700 in the air force, which has several Russian planes and transports. The coast has undergone recent marine submergence and is marked by rias, or drowned river valleys, that form inlets and tidal estuaries. This country is bordered by guinea Bissau, Mali and Senegal on the north while Sierra Leone and Liberia lie on the south of this country. The indigenous name in the Pular language is Fuuta-Jaloo. Poisonous snakes include mambas, vipers, and cobras, and there are pythons and a variety of harmless snakes. Some of these reforms include ending agriculture restrictions, creating a proper exchange rate, increasing education spending, and cutting bureaucracy. During the 1990s Guinea accommodated several hundred thousand war refugees from neighbouring Liberia and Sierra Leone, and conflicts between those countries and Guinea have continued to flare up over the refugee population. Mount Nimba (5,748 feet [1,752 metres]), the highest mountain in the region, is located at the borders of Guinea, Liberia, and Côte d’Ivoire. There is an agreement between Guinea and the U.S. providing political risk insurance to American investors. The modern state of Guinea did not come into existence until 1958, but the history of Guinea stretches back well before European colonization. Currency depreciation is also occurring with 5,554 Guinea francs to the dollar in 2006. Of the Christians, there are Roman Catholics, Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, and Anglicans. No other country has as much bauxite as Guinea-Conakry. Europe. There are also plants for juices, beer, soft drinks, and tobacco. Deciduous trees grow in scattered clumps, but few have commercial value; baobabs and shea trees furnish fruit and oil. These elections were postponed due to allegations of fraud. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Camara was shot by an aide during a dispute on December 3, 2009. The Boulbinet section and the fishing harbour at Conakry, Guinea. At low elevations, temperatures resemble those of the coastal areas. In the Forest Region at Macenta there may be some 100 or more inches (2,540 mm) of rain annually. The national capital, Conakry, lies on Tombo (Tumbo) Island and spreads up the Camayenne (Kaloum) Peninsula; it is the country’s main port. They are primarily sedent… Of the remainder, 30 percent are Mandinka and 20 percent the Soussou. Most automobiles are over 20 years old. Guinea was the first French colony in Africa to opt out of French rule, and has paid the price economically. Its topography varies from coastal plains to inland mountains that account for about 60 percent of the land area. Small communities of Baha’i, Hindus, and Buddhists also live in Guinea. Sékou Touré, Guinea was a one-party state ruled by the Democratic Party of Guinea (Parti Démocratique de Guinée; PDG). He entered into combat with the colonial army, defeating them on several occasions, including a notable victory on 2 April 1882, at Woyowayanko in the face of French heavy artillery. Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve is a protected area and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in both Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire, extending over a total of area of 17,540 hectares (43,340 acres), with 12,540 hectares (30,985 acres) in Guinea, and 5,000 hectares (12,355 acres) in Côte d’Ivoire. Bordered in north by Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali, and by Côte d'Ivoire to the east and southeast, by Liberia and Sierra Leone to the south. The mountain’s densely forested slopes are part of the Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve, which has significant portions in Guinea. In the 1990s the government adopted policies to privatize commercial activity and reduce state involvement. The Fouta Djallon highlands rise sharply from the coastal plain in a series of abrupt faults. A new railway and deep-water port are expected to be built at Kalia and Simandou (south) due to planned iron mining. Guinea’s poor infrastructure and corruption hinder development. Gasoline price controls have been loosened, exchange rates have been allowed to float, and government spending has been reduced. The Niger River flows east and arises in Guinea. Reforms were begun in 2004 under Prime Minister Diallo. There are also deposits of gold, diamonds, and other metals. The Forest Region, or Guinea Highlands, is a historically isolated area of hills in the country’s southeastern corner. Until independence in 1958 the country was known as French Guinea, a French colony and part of French West Africa. There is also an arbitration system that was installed to quickly resolve disputes. The average rainfall at Conakry is about 170 inches (4,300 mm) a year, and the average annual temperatures are in the low 80s F (about 27 °C). Travel tips. If implemented, there is potential for development, but this has been hindered by corruption, lack of stability, and lack of transparent budgeting. After the fall of the major West African empires, various kingdoms existed in what is now Guinea: Fulani Muslims migrated to Fouta Jallon in Central Guinea and established an Islamic state from 1735 to 1898 with a written constitution and alternate rulers. The army is the largest branch with 15,000 personnel and is responsible for securing the borders. Sixteen women and children were killed in the remote town of Tari in Hela Province, Papua New Guinea in an attack described by police as "barbaric and inhumane." Moussa Dadis Camara took control on December 23, 2008 as the leader of a junta. Most roads are in poor repair. Some Guineans claim that the word arose from an early episode in the European-African encounter. Try watching this video on, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. 40 percent of the people belong to the Fulani and are mostly found in the Futa Jallon region. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Fouta Djallon is a highland region in the center of Guinea. There are four branches to the country’s armed forces. Mount Nimba (5,748 feet [1,752 metres]), the highest mountain in the region, is located at the borders of Guinea, Liberia, and Côte d’Ivoire. The largest airport is the Conakry International Airport. Guinea’s land area is approximately the size of the U.K. Its land border is 3,400 km and the coastline is 300 km. During the dry season temperatures of more than 100 °F (38 °C) are common in the northeast. The main bauxite company is Compagnie des Bauxites de Guinea (CBG). This increased accessibility dramatically. It moved to Ivory Coast before being conquered by the French. Many of the dry woodlands of the region are protected in Haut Niger National Park, located in the centre of the country. Updates? The government recognizes the Jehovah’s Witnesses, who are active. Omissions? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The navy operates small patrol boats and barges. It is bordered by Ivory Coast, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. From 1880 until his death, Samori’s ambition was opposed by the expansion of the French. The seven administrative regions are Kankan, Kindia, Nzerekore, Labe Faranah, and Mamou. Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Guinea, Guinea - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Guinea - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The highest point in the highlands, Mount Tamgué, rises to 5,046 feet (1,538 metres) near the town of Mali in the north. Nonetheless, the economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture. Experiments with … Cloud State University, Minnesota. A musical group, Bembeya Jazz, became rose in popularity in the 1960s after independence. Guinea's many rivers supply water to much of West Africa. New Zealanders travelling or living in Guinea should have a comprehensive travel insurance policy in place that includes provision for medical evacuation by air. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A new port near Simandou North is also set to be constructed due to additional iron mining. There are many great books about Papua New Guinea, including great fiction as well as non-fiction. Transform Africa Summit 2020 edition has been officially announced in Conakry the capital of Guinea. The World Health Organization estimated 95.6 percent of women and girls in Guinea had suffered female genital mutilation in 2005. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The government owns significant parts of these companies. Soil conservation is extremely important, because most soils are thin and rainfall heavy, causing much erosion. Power was handed over to a freely elected civilian administration in 2010. Rail and domestic air services are insufficient and offer inadequate services. While the levels of HIV/AIDS are much lower than other African countries, Guinea is still considered to be facing an epidemic. After the first rounds, Cellou Dalein Diallo and Alpha Conde were the winners and set to move into the second round. For current health alerts; See our regional advice for Africa Water and electrical utilities were operated privately until 2001. Between 30 and 50 miles (48 and 80 km) wide, the plain is wider in the south than the north. Le maschere dei popoli della Guinea . As the ITCZ shifts southward in November, the hot, dry wind known as the harmattan blows from the northeast off the Sahara. In Upper Guinea the savanna grassland supports several species of tall grasses that reach heights of 5 to 10 feet (1.5 to 3 metres) during the rainy season. Guinea’s investment code was modified in 1998 to stimulate the economy. 3. Mali, Senegal, and Guinea-Bissau share the northern border and Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Côte d’Ivoire are to the south. Guinea’s musical tradition is rich and diverse as it is in other West African countries. Guinea is 10 degrees north of the equator and covers 245,857 sq. This slowed the pace of reforms. Guinea extends southeast in a crescent from the Atlantic coast of West Africa. Following Conté’s death, a military junta took control of the country and suspended the constitution that had been adopted in 1991. Thanks for reading and for your interest in Africa. The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. " The coast is fringed with mangrove trees, and the coastal plain supports stands of oil palms. Three of western Africa’s major rivers—the Gambia, the Niger, and the Sénégal—rise in Guinea. The name came into use among European shippers and map makers in the seventeenth century to refer to the coast of West Africa from Guinea to Benin. There are alluvial soils along the major rivers. The main groups are the Fula, Mandinka, and Susu. The modern state of Guinea did not come into existence until 1958, but the history of Guinea stretches back well before European colonization. These are subdivided into 33 prefectures. A commission reviews all investment proposals. 2. Since the 1987 Bamako Initiative, Guinea has been reorganizing its healthcare system to promote comm. Despite these problems, foreign investors still come to Guinea. Early in the country’s history, Guinea was a major exporter of coffee, peanuts, palm oil, pineapples, and bananas. a republic in West Africa, on the Atlantic: established as the colony of French Guinea in 1890 and became an independent republic in 1958. Guinea, under the name French Guinea, was a part of French West Africa until it achieved independence in 1958. In the Fouta Djallon, January afternoon temperatures range from the mid-80s to the mid-90s F (about 30 to 35 °C), while evening temperatures dip into the high 40s and low 50s F (about 8 to 11 °C). More than 20 rivers in western Africa originate in Guinea. Lansana Conte became president after a short coup. DRC Energy & Infrastructure Investment Summit 2021, Manta Rays and Whale Sharks are Now Protected by Law in Mozambique, Ghana’s ‘Mushroom Queen’ Grows Her Fungi in Sawdust, ‘It Speaks to an Ancient History’: Why South Africa Has the World’s Most Exciting Dance Music, MarvinKann Releases “Forever” Video Featuring Lib Whezzy & KIING, Not So Fast… This Is What You Should Know About Internet Speed Tests. A West African country, Guinea was formerly known as French Guinea and is sometimes called Guinea Conakry to separate it from its neighbor, Guinea Bissau. Guinea. Fulani has their roots in the North Africa and is bound together by the Fula language, culture, and religious beliefs. Read . A few hippopotamuses and manatees inhabit the rivers of both Lower and Upper Guinea. At the event, the Guest of Honour was his Excellency the Prime Minister of the Republic of Guinea, […] Lower Guinea includes the coast and coastal plain. Currently, it is the 2nd poorest country in the world, following neighboring Sierra Leone. Offended by one-sided coverage of wars, disasters and disease, the founders of created a website that provides a balanced view of Africa – current events, business, arts & culture, travel, fashion, sports, information, development, and more. The origin of the name is from the Pular word for the region plus the name of the original inhabitants, the Yalunka or Jalonke. Inflation is still a problem, reaching 30 percent in 2005. Other groups include the Kpelle, Kissi, Toma, and Zialo. The agreement stated Camara would continue his medical recovery outside Guinea and the military would not intervene in the elections. Volcanos in Papua New Guinea At 14 volcanos in Papua New Guinea there have been a total of 33 siginificant eruptions over the past 2000 years. Numerous offshore islands are remnants of former hills. Of the Muslims, most are Sufi or Sunni. Those include Maritime Guinea, Mid-Guinea, Upper-Guinea, and Forested Guinea. A small amount of river traffic also exists on the Niger and Milo rivers. There are 10,000 non-Africans. The largest gold mining operation is also partly government owned. Guinea has a population of 12.4 million.The capital and largest city, Conakry, is Guinea’s economic and cultural hub. Guinea is the richest country in terms of … On October 2, 1958, Guinea earned its independence. Outside Conakry, foreign investment is given more favorable terms. Guinea’s area is 246,000 sq. Guinea - Guinea - Government and society: For more than 25 years under Pres. In June and July 2010, the elections occurred and were the first free and fair votes since independence. The Saint Paul River enters the Atlantic at Monrovia, in Liberia, and the Moa River has its mouth at Sulima, in Sierra Leone. Immediately inland the gently rolling coastal plain rises to the east, being broken by rocky spurs of the Fouta Djallon highlands in the north at Cape Verga and in the south at the Camayenne Peninsula. … Water and electricity are also in short supply. The Wassoulou empire sometimes referred to as the Mandinka Empire was a short-lived (1878–1898) empire, led by Samory Touré in the predominantly Malinké area of what is now upper Guinea and southwestern Mali (Wassoulou). Americas. The mountain’s densely forested slopes are part of the Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve, which has significant portions in Guinea. An excellent book for the general reader about Papua New Guinea is Sean Dorney's Papua New Guinea: People, Politics, and History Since 1975. Numele țării este de origine berberă și se poate traduce drept 'țara negrilor'. There is no discrimination between foreign and domestic investment. unity-based methods. Guinea’s economic situation did not improve despite large aluminum resources. Guinea is bordered by Guinea-Bissau to the northwest, Senegal to the north, Mali to the northeast, Côte d’Ivoire to the southeast, and Liberia and Sierra Leone to the south. On January 12, 2010, Camara went to Burkina Faso and issued a statement pledging a return to civilian rule within six months. The 10,000,000 people in Guinea are part of 24 ethnic groups. Badiar National Park, which is administered jointly with Niokolo-Koba National Park in southeastern Senegal, contains savanna and forest. Africa Who owns Guinea's bauxite? Guinea is not rich in African big game. ... New species of snake which can stab sideways discovered in west Africa. Conakry is the largest city, seat of government, and capital. Due to inefficiency and corruption, the foreign private investors departed the country. Religion: Muslim majority and … Le popolazioni che vivono nell'area ricoperta dalle foreste lungo la costa della Guinea, dalla Guinea Bissau a Ovest al Camerun a Est, sono tra le più attive in Africa per la produzione di oggetti di legno intagliato e di maschere. Natural resources are plentiful: in addition to its hydroelectric potential, Guinea possesses a large portion of the world’s bauxite reserves and significant amounts of iron, gold, and diamonds. Monkeys, chimpanzees, and some rare bird species can be found in the southern portion of the Forest Region, near the Liberian border. Guinea is located in Western Africa, with the west coast facing the North Atlantic Ocean. Over 5400 people were killed. Baboons and hyenas are common, while an occasional wild boar, several types of antelope, and a rare leopard may be sighted. Guinea, country of western Africa, located on the Atlantic coast. On the coast a period of six months of dry weather is followed by six months of rain. CBG is 49 percent government owned and the remainder is owned by Alcan and Alcoa. There are 24 ethnic groups in Guinea. Rainfall varies between 60 and 90 inches (1,500 and 2,300 mm) annually, and the average annual temperatures there are in the mid-70s F (about 25 °C). 80 percent of Guinea’s foreign exchanges result from bauxite mining in the northwest. Speak Up Africa And IFPMA Start Their Search For Winners Of The Africa Young Innovators For Health Award. km. The country’s rulers have been autocratic and Guinea is one of the world’s poorest countries. In Guinea, the majority of the population, 41%, belong to the Fulani tribe and are mainly found in the Futa Djallon region. French is the official language and other common languages are Susu, Pular, Maninka, Kissi, Kpelle, and Loma. Papua New Guinea is surrounded by coral reefs which are under close watch to preserve them. There was also effort to extend all health care areas to improve indicators. There are four regions with distinct characteristics. US Election 2020. The Republic of Guinea is located in West Africa and bordered to the northwest by Guinea-Bissau, the north by Senegal and Mali, the east by Côte d'Ivoire, the south by Liberia and the southwest by Sierra Leone. Guinea’s locals rely on taxi and small buses for travel. Only the months of December, January, and February are relatively dry, with possible rainfall of only 1 inch (25 mm). The Bafing and Bakoye rivers, headwaters of the Sénégal River, flow northward into Mali before uniting to form the main river. The junta appointed Jean-Marie Dore as Prime Minister of the transition government on January 21, 2010. Etymology. In Upper Guinea rainfall drops to about 60 inches (1,500 mm) a year. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. After the fall of the major West African empires, various kingdoms existed in what is now Guinea: Futa Jallon Fulani Muslims migrated to Fouta Jallon in Central Guinea and established an Islamic state from 1735 to 1898 with a written constitution and alternate rulers. The junta ordered protesters attacked on September 28, 2009. Latest travel advice for Guinea, including how to stay safe during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and information on returning to the UK. It then was ruled successively by Sékou Touré (1958–84) and Lansana Conté (1984–2008), the latter of whom claimed power through a military coup. In 2006, Guinea entered into a production agreement with Hyperdymanics Corporation out of Houston, Texas to explore offshore oil deposits. He also ruled as a despot until he died in 2008. Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, St. In 1999, a cabinet change led to increased corruption and mismanagement. Agriculture and fishing are potential growth areas. The four regions are Basse-Cote, Fouta Djallon, Sahelian Haute-Guinea, and the jungle areas. Large, multi-national corporations like Global Alumina, Alcoa, and Alcan have invested in mining and refining operations. Fulani is the most widespread Muslim ethnic group in Sahel and West Africa. A virtual guide to Guinea, a developing country in the tropical southwestern part of West Africa at the Atlantic Ocean. This official launch made on Friday last week was made together by Smart Africa with the Republic of Guinea at Noom Hotel. This loss forced the government to seek finances from the Central Bank. Author of. Mount Nimba is the highest point at 1,750 m. Guinea’s large natural resources include 25 percent of the bauxite reserves known in the world. The Fouta Djallon is mostly open, with trees growing along the wider stream valleys. km and the country forms a crescent with a curve from its western border to the Atlantic. The mountains are the source of the Niger, Senegal, and Gambia rivers. The Atlantic Ocean lies to the west. The rocks of this region are of the same composition as those of Upper Guinea. In 1996, the president promised additional reforms and appointed a new government. Hydroelectric power has potential as well. At the end of 2004, estimates show 170,000 infected with HIV/AIDS. Content is produced in collaboration between’s editorial team and our partners — including nongovernmental organizations, private sector stakeholders, agencies and institutions. The Niger River and several tributaries, including the Tinkisso, Milo, and Sankarani, rise in the highlands and flow in a general northeasterly direction across Upper Guinea to Mali. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Its base rocks of granite and gneiss (coarse-grained rock containing bands of minerals) are covered with laterite (red soil with a high content of iron oxides and aluminum hydroxide) and sandstone gravel.

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